Friday, February 2, 2018

Rembert Dodoens (Dodonaeus) on Malt and Beer (1644)

Barley water, in France called Ptisane or Tisane.
The Ptisane has this similarity with malt: that when one makes Ptisane / the barley is put into a mortar / poured onto it is a little water; and with a wood pestle it is punched until the skins [chaff] comes off: then if one wants to make malt / then the barley is not peeled / but also soaked whole for several days.

Polenta is the flour of roasted barley.
This polenta, said Pliny / is made in diverse manners. The Greek first pour water over the barley / and soak one night long: the other day they roast it / and after that grind or break it with milling. Some roast the barley some more / and dribble again with a little water / and dry it before they mill. Others shake or thresh the barley out of its green and fresh ears / and make it so very pure and naked / and punch it in a mortar / first poured over with water; and then wash it in baskets / and dry in the sun: being dry / they punch it again / and mill / until well purified [removed] of its outsides or scales.

The 18th Chapter. Of polenta or flour of roasted barley.
Nature, potency and function. Some tease [out of] the polenta more health by drinking it cooked in must and mingled together with sweet wine or mead / sometimes also only mingled with water / in the morning before going to the bath: a sick drink often held in esteem to defeat thirst. And verily / said Lobel / polenta in olden times was thought a refreshing drink: but it is not [the same as] sharpbeer [scherpbeer] cooked with bran and mingled with [lees? spent grains?] / as some wrongly have thought. But the thickly cooked naerbier has much semblance with polenta: because it is pulled from barley malt / this is flour of soaked / and thereafter dried and toasted or roasted barley. Because of that our Lobel, in the books of Dioscoides, most often substituted the word polenta in our language to naerbier or malt / especially if the polenta was described as a soft porridge. Because sometimes only fine flour of the polenta was wanted and used / outside to paint on lids mingled with diverse juices and herbs / after the demand of the areas [cultures]. After all naerbier is much more similar with polenta as with the grist of the Lower Germans / said our Lobel.

The 21st Chapter. Of malt.
Of barley is also made that which today in our language is called malt: because this is no other than the grain itself of the barley / first soaked so long in water / until it is completely swolen and thick: and after that sprouted / or new sprouts issued / at the last with these new sprouts or protruding tongues [it is] all dried up. Then this malt is evenly dried by the heat of fire; which heat is made by an unusual and only for this purpose made kiln [and is disperged] through small airholes distributed over the whole area / where the wet barley lays / to be scattered: seldom it is dried without fire / and then only in the summer months / when it is quite hot weather; and then one lays the barley on a high, airy [drafty?] and angled to the sun attic / scattered well and thin; and one turns often during the day / as that way it does not stifle or spoil.
    Name: In our language is the barley / as it is prepared as foresaid / called malt; in High German Maltz; of that some have wanted to make this into the Latin name Maltum. Aetius / the Greek medical / called barley used in this way korn.
    Use and usefulness. This malt is made and prepared to brew beer: the best is that which is made and prepared in the months March and April.
    Nature, potency and function. Malt is a little drier of nature than barley / but a lot less cooling than the same; on average that which is roasted or dried with the power of fire: because of the burn / which stays with the malt through the frying and the roasting / it multiplies its dryness / and makes not only the cold properties / which it had from the barley / a lot less strong and weaker / but brings to it some heat or warming properties. That which is dried by heat of the sun in attics in the hottest days of summer / is somewhat less warm then that which is dried in kilns / although it is seldom warmer than the barley / if only / because through sprouting or germinating of the grain; the which / of the barley one gets of the water which one has poured over it: because the decay brings some heat or warmth into it / which is in many and diverse things quite remarkable.
    [...] Barley changed from the ptisane or polenta; the which sometimes out of raw and unripe barley / sometimes from barley only soaked in water / is made and prepared / as is aforesaid.


Malt is made from several grains / said Lobel; like of wheat / barley / spelt and oats: which / after it is prepared / can change the body of the beer. Because malt of wheat and Large Barley (especially that which is dried above a malting kiln [eest]) makes a red and brown beer: Malt of the Small Barley / oats/ spelt / wheat / mingled with five or six pounds of bean flour / makes white and clear beer: which the next chapter will show.
    Preparation of the malt by Lobel. In England they make the malt althus: the barley (to know the Small Barley / which is better suited to make malt / than the Large) is soaked in water for two days and three nights: after the water is expelled / so it is laid in a heap in a barn or grain-attic / which the wind can not get to / until it sprouts: which in the spring and summer happens within two or three days / but in winter will take longer. Then / before it gets too hot / it is spread, with furrows, one and a half palm thick / and between night and day it is turned three or four times in the open air: this is kept up eight or nine days long / and it becomes perfect. At last it is dried on [seems to mean on top, not in] a kiln with a small fire of chaff / wood charcoal / or moldy [could also mean dry] wood / which is stuck into the furnace made capable for it / about one and a half palm of the bottom; and that as long / until it can be milled: and also the dried malt is thrown in the width of the kiln [outside periphery?]: which swells and multiplies a fourth part on each measure barley / the old malt is unsurpassed than the new [this makes sense if fresh malt is cycled in].
    Graut and Naerbier is made althus / said Lobel: take six or eight pounds of milled malt / twelve or fifteen pounds of seething hot water: mix this together well six times a day: cover very well with cloths and straw: and let it soak together so long in a clean barrel that it becomes as thick as syrup. After that one should heat this up with fire / always diligently stirring / so that it does not burn [to the bottom] / until it becomes as thick as porridge. One uses the thickly cooked Naerbier in Delft in Holland / said Lobel / not only prepared to eat during lent on bread / similar to syrups and condensed wine / but also to mix in diverse plasters / as one used soap and cooked must: because it has the same potency to strengthen hurt parts / and digest foulness.

The 22nd Chapter. Of Beer.
Beer is cooked from malt and the flowers or bells of hops / after being mingled with a certain and known amount of sweet water [as opposed to salty; brackish water was a problem to dutch brewers]: and this kind of drink should actually be called beer / and it is for that. The same name of beer should also, not wrongly, be used for drinks which including malt has also some wheat / spelt and other grains mixed in. Then the drinks / that beside the diverse grains / also [have] other herbs / seeds / flowers / fragrant dry of spices / or other similar head blurring and drunkenness promoting things / and deviate so far from the grain / in the case of mixing with the malt / and thus should not really carry the name of Beer / but should more fittingly and better be called Mixed or Spiced Drinks / because they do not only differ from barley and wheat beer in taste / but are also found changed so much in attributes.
    Name. This drink from grains / as has been said / is made in each of the High and Low Germany's / and English and other north living nations in this time, with the shared name of Biere or Bere in their own language; in Latin bera or cervisia. The old writers have called the drinks made of barley by different names; for instance oenos crithinos in Greek / or vinum hordeaceum in Latin; as if one says barley wine. This same Aristotelese called pinos / witnessed Athenucus; others [say] bryton, as Sophocles in Triptolemo / and Heratcus in the book Europae periodus; in there he writes / that the nation Peones drank bryton of barley / and another drink called parabie / made of hirs [resin] and conyza [Conyza sp.]. Although Hellanicus writes / that bryton was not only made from barley / but also from some roots / saying: They consume those of Thracien their bryton used of barley.
    The Egyptians called barley drinks zython or zethon, says Theophrastus: the same witnessed Pliny in his 22th book: of grains / he said / different drinks are made, to know zythum in Egypt / celia and ceria in Spain / cervisia and other genders in France and other lands. The barley drinks are different from each other by name / said our Pliny in his 14th book; although they are made in pretty much the same manner.
    Diodorus Siculus writes / that zythum not only in Egypt / but also in Galtien [Gaul?] is made. So large is the [preservable] air in the landscape of Galantien / that there grows no oil nor wine: that is why it is necessary the people [living] there make a drink from barley / which they call zythum / said our Diodorus. Dioscorides called the gender of barley zythum, the other curmi.
    Simeon Zethy / one of the Greek writers who wrote for many years / called such a drink in Arabic poucas, the other phocadoin or phoucadion: although with the Arabic writers the word phoucas means not only a drink made with barley / but also / as Ghales writes / another drink / from bread of Heveri / fine wheat or white bread / mint / and egg, made and mingled: and as Haly Ababs witnessed / there is another phoucas one makes from the juice of pomegranates.
    All these drinks / if they are of the same gender / called by different names / or if they differ in other ways / could be similar with beer; to know they are made of barley and some grains / mingled or brewed: although they may in the way of preparation or brewing / and maybe in other ways differ from our beer. Because those who protect the zythum (as Galenus said in the book De facult. simpl. medicament.) from decay / or is made from some grain poured over with water / until it collapses in moisture / or falls apart / similar to wine / (as Hermolaus Barbarus in his Corollaria describes) and sharp as well as evil of drink and food / it would disturb the kidneys and the nerves; (these properties are by Dioscorides and Galenus also attributed to zythum); so it is apparently enough / that it does not compare with our beer at all / nor have any resemblance. Because the beer is not made of decaying grains / nor out of any grain / which in moistness is changed or stripped: but out of barley malt / as has been said / cooked; which from all decaying is preserved and prevented. There also is beer of its own sweet / pleasant and lovely taste / and very good of juice and wort. Which reasons apparently are enough to show / that beer does differ from the zythum of the ancestors / as well as its force. But if zythum is not / as Galenus or Hermolaus wrote / made in such a way / then barley and wheat alone added to a little of itself to some decay mingled and shuffled [this could mean to add unmalted flour to malt] / as Theophrastus of it witnesses / so shall the zythum of the ancestors and the beer of our time be found very similar to each other.
    Because the barley in malt changes / becomes indeed a little decayed / and deviates a little from her old nature and shape. But if indeed this is so / as the words of Theophrastus seem to tell us / so would Galenus and Dioscorides / and further all those / who follow their opinions and students / maybe not totally have known or researched the nature / force and substances of the zythum. Because through these so small and light maceration or changes can the barley or the drink made thereoff not spoil anymore from the evil of the wort and juice of the polenta: the which is not made of fresh / but of ripe and dried barley soaked in water: noticed that the barley then also seems to decay a wee bit / and any outside moisture is absorbed; as one would see as it changes into malt. Then at least / about the source of this decay Galenus / nor anyone else of the old Masters / thought the polenta evil of food or drink: but on the other hand they assure / that all sorts of polenta are good and sweet of scent / the same as one sees the malt be / as when it is made and prepared well and properly.
    The words / with which Theophrastus the zythum or the zethos of barley and wheat are a little decayed / has written / sound althus in the 6th book of Causis, when he covers the Tastes [of which] some are presented as a juice or drink / satisfactory to be consumed / unless the same is decayed a little and their nature changed: the same one sees of those making a wine of barley and wheat / which in Egypt is called zethos.
    Nature, potency and function. The nature / shape and force of the beer / as we have said before / is water / barley-malt / sometimes also wheat or spelt / and the bells or clumps of the hops. These different parts have each their own and special powers. Because the water of which the beer is brewed / to be known bad / clear and unmingled / is cold and moist: the malt is drying and diminishing / with some not very large warmth: the wheat and the spelt are average warm and dry: the flowers or bells of the hops warm and dry in the second degree / they influence the head / and fill it with its haziness / promote peeing / and also have a decreasing and opening power. Then this hops is added to make the beer taste better and last longer or preserve of spoilage: but the grain that is with it / strengthens by substance to give the drink some nourishing properties.
    After the diverse / and uneven mingling of the foresaid ingredients / there have been found different genders of beer / all different and not all that comparable to each other / which is shown in drinking. Because some beers are thin and weak, some strong; some reddish or brown / some white: many are bitter / and many sweet of taste. Those which contain much grain / are stronger and more forceful: those with less grain / are weaker and lighter: those with hardly any grain / are therefore weakest and thinnest. Of barley-malt / which is roasted longer / the beer becomes reddish / especially if it has been cooked a bit longer: then beers are on average / those made of spelt and wheat / white of color; and when aged compare not badly to thin or light watery wine / because of the thinness of its substance. The hop bells / cooked too long or too many with beer / make that the beers become bitter of taste / and sooner influence and disturb the head: if there are not many hops added / then the beers are much sweeter. Because the grains tend to give the beer their own sweetness.
     Of all these beers the thinnest and lightest beer is cold and moist of nature / because the watery property is the most substance in it: it is although not completely without any warmth.
    The beers / which are somewhat stronger and thicker / also have more warmth: even by the force and opportunity of the previously mentioned heat they seeth [ferment] when poured into vats or barrels / to rise or come up / as if it is must of new wine: even though they are warm of nature not unlike the average or normal wines; ie become into their own not only through the heat of its stature / but also goes above [becomes more than] the thinness or fineness of substance produced. Because the warmth of beer is mediocre / soft / and not all that great.
    Also there are beers which do not give the body / ai give almost no sustenance with it all: and some sustain a bit more: then the strongest give the most sustenance. But it is that the beers much / unless they sustain little / [of] the juice / sustenance or wort / which is made of good grains [koren, used for barley alone, or grain in general] / and is well cooked and brewed. Then the thickish beers hang about or irritate the heart and the stomach for some time / and go down sluggish or slowly: the white are thinner / and are digested or processed faster: the bitter beers make the belly weak through its decreasing force: the average / to know not too sweet not too bitter beers / are by strength [force] also placed in between the others.
    The mixed beers / which apart of the grain and the hops / also [include] several other herbs / flowers / seeds / fruits / spiced and those sorts of things / show also diverse and mixed / ai sometimes even evil and damaging forces and processes / after the diversity of the forces of the things mixed with it.
    Young or fresh beer / that did not go or rise and sink yet / hurts and hinders the body much; similarly as must tends to do: it causes swellings and gas in the guts and intestines / it turns the belly / does grow the gravel and stone in the bladder and kidneys / and is often the cause of uneasy peeing / or drop-pee: then however if one uses it from without [outside] / and the nervous parts of the body are covered with it / or made wet / then it sweetens the pain of that / to know if that same beer is real warm and sweet. And to that end shall the best and strongest beer be that which is very fresh / and which with it the hops has not cooked and been with it too long.
    Sour beer is bad for the nerves and the kidneys / turns the stomach / and lets the body grown in evil spirits.
    Vinegar made of beer is less strong than wine vinegar / and also not as sharp / nor as thin of parts as the same wine-vinegar.


In the books of the Landtwinninge [?] are many and good notes written about beer / and only a little of the same from Lobel and other [sources].
    The way to brew beer according to Lobel. Take eight English meulkens [measure] coarsely ground malt: on that pour clean river water / which is seething (in which several handfuls of wheat bran are cooked) so much as would fit in a carteel [measure] of Orleans [Orléans, 69 miles (111 km) southwest of Paris]. This is well mixed and mingled together / and one shall let it stand cozy and warm during the time of three hours / and then it is drained from below through a small hole / and let out through straw / or with a double bottom [dedicated] used for this. That which is pulled off (called worte in Dutch and English) is again for half an hour or longer / ie also sometimes cooked for several hours / so that it will keep longer; with that add four pounds of hops: after that it is put in a large and wide tub / add to this thusly cooled down beer barely a pond or one and a half of yeast of the best beer: all this stirred around well / is put in a warm place; and covered with cloths / also add the rest of the beer to it / so that it will become better. When this is done / then it is poured / the barrels filled: and at last if it has gone already [done working] / it is well stopped [closed]. On that same malt one then pours fresh hot water: one does that through [mixes] / and one thus makes Thin or Small Beer.
    English ale is made althus: Take two hundred pound cooked malt / that is wort / two handfuls hop: when that has cooked together and is poured through [filtered off] / one would also mix it together / as has been said above / to know yeast of beer or ale three pounds / and English grout / which we call naerbier / six to eight pounds.
    Bellonis said / that the zythum has no resemblance with our beer: but assured daringly [or naughtily] / that the zython of the Greek was the posca or pusca of the Latin: but he is [wrong]: because the posca was nothing more than a mingle of water and vinegar / very much different from our cervisia, zythum or beer / and more similar with the reuuragie [name of beer] of some seafaring people: although it is that each nation gave their seafarers a special drink for at sea / which is unneccessary to recount here.
    Force of the beer. Beer has many forces / not only on the inside but also the outside of the body.
    Because if one makes beer warm / and steams the feet of those tired / it dispells tiredness.
    The foam of beer makes the skin of the womens' faces clean and smooth.
    Beer made of malt / which has been soaked in lye / goes very quickly to the head / and causes almost a dullness / after sweet happiness.
    Others do instead of hops sweet [?] or soot of the fireplace in the beer; and the malt is soaked in salt water / as the more one drinks of the beer, the more thirst one would get.
    Plasters made of wort of the best beer heals the pain of the nerves and the appendages with its sweetly fortifying and digesting force: and it is good against the flercyn.
    In case you cook green hops in the beer / and put these in the mouth / it would drive off toothache [could also mean mouth ulcers].
    A hen or a cock shall get fat quickly / if they drink beer instead of water / or that one makes their feed with beer.
    The High and Low Germans sometimes cook with hops, gentian, laurel berries, Curcuma zedoaria, bog myrtle, Iluna sp. root, lavendel, sage, flowers of Horminum or scharley, cuculus indi [?] or some of the species of dimming nightshade, veldtcypres (Ajuga chamaepitys) and other similar herbs: and from this the beers become so diverse of force, that they mixed drinks / and not beers / should be called / as Dodonaeus has admonished often enough. Then the hops alone is enough to make the beer healthy: because it purifies the blood / and tempers the heat of the liver / as has been explained in the description of hops at length. Because of that those who belong / in the lands of the wine / should not despise beer / which lets us live longer and healthier / than their wine does. Old beer / which is brewed in March and is not consumed before summer / is as clear as wine / and almost as strong / ie sometimes has more strength / so that one would [have to] consume more wine than of that beer. Here in our lands it is regarded unhealty / as it makes cramps in the belly. Even so one finds that consumed in moderation it does not hurt healthy bodies / and the same gives much mettle and strength / especially to those tired from prolonged labor. Then those who are used to drinking fresh beer and can not deal with the change [over]; except then the rawness / which they would have collected from fresh beer / stirs in their body / if they start to consume better or older and clearer beer: and from that it looks like this old beer is doing them harm. Then the most evil of old beer is / that it constricts and bothers the throat and nerves somewhat: but this discomfort leaves almost [immediately]. And verily / if the brains and the nerves are hurt by drinking too much beer / and it burns the blood / then in the face by the nose appear swellings and pimples / comparable to the leprous: but which are not signs of any evil of beer / but of the gluttony of those drinking way to much of it.
    To prevent your beer from going sour / throw a satchel of green barley-ears [koren-aren] on it / and let it lay on it for a long time.
    Is it that the beer starts to turn or loose its strenth / hang into the barrel two or three whole eggs: (others put into it whole suet or wax candles): and let the beer digest this.
    Of the vinegar / and the burned wine [brandewijn, or brandy] / which one can make of beer / there is no room to make much words; as well as the yeast: because in this book not everything can be described.
    Spent grains / or malt of which beer is cooked / serves to feed the cows in winter and to fatten pigs / when they are stabled.

Gerste water, in Franckrijck Ptisane oft tisane gheheeten.
De Ptisane heeft met het Mout dese ghelijckenisse: dat wanneer men de Ptisane bereydt / de Gerste in eenen mortier gedaen wordt / gietende daer op een weynigh water; ende met eenen houten stamper ghestooten tot dat de vellekens afgaen: dan alsmen Mout maecken wil / dan en wordt de Gerste niet ghepelt / maer alsoo geheel ettelijcke daghen langh gheweyckt.

Polenta is het Meel van Gherooste Gerste.
Dese Polenta, seydt Plinius / wordt op veelerhande wijsen ghemaeckt. De Grieken overgieten de Greste eerst met water / ende weyckense eenen nacht langh: t'sanderen daeghs roosten sy die / ende daer nae malen oft breken sy de selve met molens. Sommighe roosten de Gerste wat meer / ende bespraeyense wederom met luttel waters / ende drooghense eer sijse malen. Andere schudden oft dorssen de Gesrte uyt haer groene ende versche aeren / ende maeckense soo heel suyver ende bloot / ende stootense in eenen vijsel / eerst met water overgoten zijnde; ende dan wassen sy de selve uyt in mandekens / ende drooghense in de Sonne: droogh synse / stooten sy die weder / ende maelense / alsse wel van hear buysten oft schubben [?] ghesuyvert is.

Het XVIII. Capitel. Van Polenta oft Meel van Gherooste Gerste. [tweede kolom, biivoeghsel, bottom]
Aerd, Kracht ende Werckinghe. Sommighe plagen de Polenta om meerder ghesontheydt mee inghesoden Most ende met soeten Wijn oft Meede t'same ghemenght te drincken / somtijdts oock alleenlijck met water besprenght / smorgens eer sy naer 't badt ginghen: ende sid?cken dranck oft kost hielden sy voor goedt om den dorst te verslaen. Ende voorwaer / seydt Lobel / Polenta was in ouden tyden voor eenen vermaerden verkoelenden dranck ghehouden gheweest: maer er is geensins Scherpbier van semelen ghesoden ende met ?eefdregh ghemenght / als sommighe qualijck gemeynt hebben. Maer het dick versoden Naerbier heeft groote ghelijckenisse met de Polenta: want het is uyt Gerste Mout ghetrocken / dat is meel van geweyckte / ende daer nae ?edrooghde ende gefrijte oft gerooste Gerste. Daerom heeft den selven Lobel in de boecken van Dioscoides meestendeel voor het woordt Polenta in onse tael Naerbier oft Mout ghestelt / bijsonderlijck als de Polenta beschreben wordt als een sachte pappe. Want sometijdts wordt alleen de fijne bloemen van de Poleta begheert ende ghebruyckt / om van buyten op eenigh lidt te strijcken met verscheyden sappen ende cruyden vermenght / nae den eysch van de gebieden. Immers het Naerbier ghelijckt de Polenta veel beter dan het Gort van de Nederduytschen / seydt den selven Lobel.

Het XXI. Capitel. Van Mout.
Van de Gerste wordt oock ghemaeckt 'tghene datmen hedensdaeghs in onze tael Mout pleegh te noemen: want dit is anders niet dan het graen selve van de Gerste / eerst soo langh in water gheweyckt / tot dat het heel gheswollen ende dick gheworden is: ende daer nae gheschoten zijnde / oft nieuwe spruyten uytghegheven hebbende / ten laetsten met sijne nieuwe scheuten oft voortgekomen tonghskens verdrooght is.
Dan dit Mout wordt ghemeynlijck door de hitte des viers gedrooght; welcke hitte met eenen bijsonderen ende alleen tot dien eynde gemaeckten oven pleegh door kleyne lochtgaten uytgesonden ende over de gantsche plaetse / daer die vochte Gerste leyt / verspreydt te worden: selden wordt het sonder vier gedrooght / ende dat niet anders dan in de Somersche maenden / als het bijster heet weder is; ende dan leydt men de Gerste op hooghe lochtighe ende wel ter Sonnen staende solderen / wel dun verspreydt; ende men keertse oft wendtse dickwijls des daeghs om / op dat sy niet en versticke oft en bederve.
Naem: In onse tael is de Gerste / soo als hier voorseydt is bereydt zijnde / Mout gheheeten; in 't Hooghduytsch Maltz; daervan hebben sommighe den Latijnschen naem Maltum willen maecken. Aetius / den Griekschen Medierin [?] / heeft de Gerste in deser voeghen ghehandelt zijnde / Byne korn ghenoemt.
    Gebruyck ende nuttigheydt. Dit Mout wort ghemaeckt ende bereydt om daer Bier mede te brouwen: ende het beste is 'tghene dat hier in de maenden van Meert ende April ghemaeckt ende bereydt wordt.
    Aerd, Kracht ende Werckinghe. Mout is wel wat droogher van aerd dan de Gerste / maer veel min verkoelende dan de selve; in sonderheyt het gene dat door kracht des viers geroost oft gedrooght is: want de brandtachtigheydt / die dit Mout door het braden oft roosten by blijft / vermeerdert sijn drooghte / ende en maeckt niet alleen de koude eyghentheydt / die het van de Gerste hadde / veel onstercker ende slapper / maer brenght daer eenighe heete oft warme eygenheydt in. Dan 'tgene dat door de hitte der Sonnen op solders in de heetste tijden des Somers droogh gheworden is / is wel wat min warm da 'tghene dat in de ovens ghedrooght wordt / nochtans is het selve veel warmer dan de Gerste / al waer het nergens om / dan alleen door het spruyten oft botten van dat graen; 'tWelcghe / die de Gerste krijght van het water datmen daer over ghegoten heeft: want dat de verrottinghe eenighe hitte oft warmte by brenght / dat is in veele ende verscheyden dinghen een ieder merchelijck ghenoegh.
    Galenus [...] Gerste gheweken is van de Ptisane oft Polenta; de welcke somtijdts uyt rouwe ende onrijpe Gerste / somtijdts uyt de Gerste alleenlijck in water gheweyckt zijnde / gemaeckt ende bereydt wordt / als voorseydt is.


Mout wordt ghemaeckt uyt verscheuden graenen / seydt Lobel; als van Terwe / Gerste / Spelte ende Haver: 'twelck / nae dat het bereydt wrodt / de verwe van 't Bier veranderen kan. Want Mout van Terwe ende Groote Gerste (in sonderheydt dat boven op den ast ghedrooght ende doordrooght is) maeckt een roodt ende bruyn Bier: Mout van Kleyne Gerste / Haver / Spelte / Terwe / ghemenght met vijf oft ses ponden Boonen Meel / maeckt witachtigh ende klaer Bier: als in 't naevolghende Capittel blijcken sal.
    Bereydinghe van het Mout uyt Lobel. In Enghelandt maecken sy het Mout aldus: De Gerste (te weten de Kleyne Gerste / die sy bequamer houden om het Mout te maecken / dan de Groote) wordt twee daghen endt dry nachten in water gheweyckt: daer nae 'twater afghegoten zijnde / soo wordtse op eenen hoop gheleydt in een schure oft koren-solder / daer den windt niet aen en mach / tot datse schiet: 'twelck in de Lente ende Somer binnen twee of dry daghen gheschiedt / maer in den Winter vallet langher. Dan wordtse / eer sy beghint heet te worden / ghespreydt met voren anderhalve palme dick / ende wordt tusschen dagh ende macht dry oft vier mael met open locht ghekeert: 'twelck onderhouden wordt acht oft neghen dagen langh / ende wordt also volmaeckt. Ten laetsten wordtse ghedrooght op eenen ast [eest] met kleyn vier van kaf / hout-kolen / oft dor hout / dat ghesteken wordt in't fornays daer toe bequaem ghemaeckt zijnde / omtrent anderhalve palme van 't onderste ligghende; ende dat soo langhe / tot dat men se malen kan: ende alsoo wordt dan het ghedrooght Mout geworpen in de wijdde van de oven: 'twelck swilt ende ghemeerdert wordt een vierendeel op elcke mate Gerste. Maer om Bier te brouwen / is het oude Mout onghelijck beter dan het nieuwe.
    Graut of Naerbier wordt aldus ghemaeckt / seydt Lobel: Neemt ses of acht ponden ghemalen Mouts / twaelf oft vijftien ponden siedende heet water: roert dit tsamen wel onder een zes mael daegs: decket seer well met cleederen ende stroo: ende laet het t'samen soo langhe in een schoon vat staen weycken tot dat het soo dick wort als eenen Syroop. Daer nae sult ghy dat voorts met den vier opsieden / altijdt seer neerstigh roerende / op dat niet aen een berne /  to dat het soo dick als pap gheworden is. Het dick versoden Naerbier pleeghmen te Delft in Hollandt / seydt Lobel / niet allenlijck te bereyden om t'eten in den vasten op't broodt / ghelijck Syroopen ende versoden Wijn / maer oock in veelderley plaesters te mengen / ghelijckmen de Sapa oft versoden Most plagh: want het is van ghelijcke kracht om de ghequetste leden te verstercken / ende de rouwigheden te verteeren.

Het XXII. Capitel. Van Bier.
Bier wordt van Mout ende de bloemen oft bellen van de Hoppe / nae een seker mate ende wetenschap met soet water vermenght zijnde / ghesoden: ende sulcken dranck is eyghentlijck Bier te noemen / ende daer voor te houden. Den selven naem van Bier moghen oock niet t'onrecht voeren alle drancken die by het Mout noch eenighe Terwe / Spelte ende ander korenwerck vermenght hebben. Dan de drancken / die beneffens het verscheyden korenwerk / noch andere Cruyden / Saden / Bloemen / Welrieckende droghen oft Specerijen / oft meer andere dierghelijcke 't hooft verhullende ende dronckenschap inbrengende dinghen / seer veel van den ard van het Graen wijckende / midtsgaders het Mout vermenght hebben / en moghen soo eyghentlijck den naem van Bier niet voeren / maer sullen veel eer en beter Ghemenghde oft Specerijachtighe Drancken genoemd worden / om dieswille dat sy van het oprechte Gersten ende Terwen Bier niet alleen van smaeck / maer oock van eyghentheydt seer veel verschillende bevonden worden.
    Naem. Desen Dranck uyt korenwerck / als seydt is / gemaeckt wordt van elk de Hoogh ende Nederduytschen / Enghelsche ende andere Noordtwaerts woonende volcken nu ter tijdt met eenen ghemeynen naemt Biere oft Bere gheheeten in hun eyghen tael; op't Latijnsch Bera oft Cervisia. De oude schrijvers hebben de drancken van Gerste ghemaeckt met verscheyden naemen gheheeten; te weten Oenos crithinos [-] in 't Griecksch / oft Vinum hordeaceum op't Latijnsch; als ofmen Gerste-wijn seyde. Den selven heeft Aristotelese Pinos [-] ghenoemt / tuyght Athenucus; andere [-] Bryton, als Sophocles in Triptolemo / ende Heratcus in het boeck Europae periodus; daer hy schrijft / dat het volck Peones Bryton van Gerste droncken / ende eenen anderen dranck Parabie [-] gheheeten / van Hirs ende Conyza maeckten. Nochtans schrijgt Hellanicus / dat Bryton niet alleen uyt Gerste / maer ook uyt eenighe wortelen gemaeckt wierdt / seggende: Sy drincken die van Thracien hunnen Bryton van Gerste ghebruycken.
    De Egyptenaers noemen de Gerste drancken Zython [-] oft Zethon [-], seydt Theophrastus: 'tselve betuyght Plinius in sijn 22. boeck: Van het korenwerck / seydt hy / worden verscheyden drancken ghemaekt te weten Zythum in Egyptenlandt / Celia ende Ceria in Spaegnien / Cervisia ende meer andere gheslachten in Franckrijck ende andere landouwen. De Gerste drancken schillen van malkanderen aengaende haer naemen / seydt den selven Plinius in sijn XIV. Boeck; dan sy worden nochtans allegander op eenerhande wijse ghemaeckt.
    Diodorus Siculus schrijft / dat Zythum niet alleen in Egyptenlandt / maer oock in Galtien ghemaeckt wierdt. Soo groot is de houdigheydt des lochts in dat landschap van Galantien / dat daer gheen Olie noch geenen Wijn en wast: daarom zijn de menschen aldear ghenootsackt gheweest eenen dranck van Gerste te maecken / die sy Zythum noemen / seydt den selven Diodorus. Dioscorides moent het een gheslacht van Gersten dranck Zythum, het ander Curmi.
Simeon Zethy / een van de Griecksche Schrijvers die ver met seer veele jaeren gheschreven hebben / noemt dusdanighen dranck in 't Arabisch Phoucas [-], andere Phocadion [-] oft Phoucadion [-]: nochtas by de Arabische schrijvers beteekent het woordt Phoucas niet alleen eenen dranck van Gerst gemaeckt / maer oock / als Ghales schrijft / eenen anderen dranck / uyt Broodt van Heveri / fijn Terwen oft Witten Broodt / Munte / ende Eyye gemaeckt ende gemenght: ende als Haly Abbas betuyght / daer is noch een ander Phoucas datmen maeckt uyt het sap van Granaet-appelen.
    Alle dese drancken / 'tzy datse eenerhande gheslachten zijn / met verscheyden naemen gheheeten / 'tzy batse met eenighe eyghentheydt van den anderen verschillen / konnen met het Bier erghens in over een komen; te weten dat sy uyt Gerste ende eenigh korenwerck ghemaekt / gemenght oft gebrouwen worden: nochtans moghen sy inde wijse van bereyden oft brouwinghe / ende misschien in eenighe andere eygentheydt van ons Bier verschillende zijn. Want in die het Zythum (als Galenus seydt in 't boeck De facult. simpl. medicament.) van verrottinghe voorkomt / oft ghemaeckt wordt van eenigh Koren dat met water begoten is geweest / tot dat het in een vochtighheydt vergaet / oft ontdaen wordt / die den Wijn gelijckt / (als Hermolaus Barbarus in sijne Corollaria schrijft) ende daer-en-boven scherp ende quadt van sap ende voedtsel is / de nieren ende de zenuwen lastigh ende hinderlijck valt; (welcke eygentheden dit Zythum van Dioscorides ende Galenus oock toegheschreven worden;) soo is het blijckelijck genoegh / dat het met ons Bier geensins over een komen / noch eenighe gelijkenisse hebben en kan. Want het Bier en wordt van gheen verrottende korenwerck gemaeckt / noch oock uyt eenigh koren / 'twelck in vochtigheydt verandert oft ontdaen soude wesen: maer wordt uyt Gerste Mout / als voorseyt is / gesoden; 'twelck van alle verrottinge bewaert ende afgehouden is. Daer-en-hoven soo is het Bier van sich selven soet / aenghenaem ende lieffelijck van smaeck / ende gantschelijck goedt van sap oft gijl. Welcke redenen klaerlijck ghenoegh betoonen konnen / dat het Bier voorwaer van het Zythum van de ouders veel verschilt / soo wel aengaende sijne krachten. Maer indien het Zythum niet in sulcker voeghen / als Galenus oft Hermolaus gheschreven hebben / ghemaeckt wierdt / dan alleen van Gerste ende Terwe maer een weynighsken aenkomende oft haer selven tot eenighe verrottinge voegende ende keerende / oft van hunnen ouden aerd een weynighsken verandert zijnde / als Theophrastus daer van betuyght / soo sullen het Zythum van de ouders ende het Bier van onse tijden malkanderen heel ghelijck wesende bevonden worden. Want de Gerste in Mout veranderende / wordt voorwaer eenighsins verrot / ende wijckt een weynighskens van haeren ouden aerd ende ghestaltenisse. Maer indien dat so is / als ons uyt de woorden van Theophrastus te verstaen dunckt te weten / soo sullen Galenus en Dioscorides / ende voorts alle de ghene / die hun meyninghe ende leeringhe naevolghen / niet wel ende volkomentlijck den aerd / krachten ende maecksel van het Zythum ghekent oft ondersocht hebben. Want door dese soo kleyne ende lichte verrottinghe oft veranderinge en kan de Gerste oft den dranck daer van ghemaeckt niet meer bederven oft quadt van gijl ende sap worden dan de Polenta: de welke niet van versche / maer van rijpe ende drooghe Gerste in water gheweykt zijnde ghemaeckt wordt: gemerckt dat de Gerste alsdan oock een weynighsken schijnt te verrotten / ende eenighe uytwendighe vochtigheydt in te drincken; ghelijckmen siet dat sy doet als sy in Mout veranderen sal. Dan nochtans / om de oorsaecke van dese verrottinghe en heeft Galenus / noch niemandt anders van de oude Meesters / de Polenta quaedt van voedtsel ende sap gheacht te wesen: maer daer-en-teghen versekeren sy / dat allerhande Polenta goedt ende soet van reuck is / ghelijckmen het Mout oock siet wesen / soo wanneer dat wel ende gehoorlijck ghemaeckt ende bereydt is gheweest.
    De woorden / met de welcke Theophrastus het Zythum oft de Zethos [-] van de Gerste ende Terwe een weynighsken verrot zijnde / schrijft ghemaeckt te worden / luyden aldus in het 6. boeck de Causis, wanneer hy van de Smaecken handelt: Sommige worden tot een sap oft dranck ghebroght / bequaem om ghedroncken te worden / midts de selve een weynighsken laetende verroten ende hunnen aerd veranderen: gelijckmen siet dat doen de genen die eenen Wijn van de Gerste ende Terwe maecken / die in Egypten Zethos ghenoemt wordt.
    Aerd, Kracht ende Werckinghe. Den aerd / ghestaltenisse ende kracht van het Bier / is gheleghen in de eygentheden van 'tgene daer dat van gemaeckt oft gebrouwen wordt. Maer het stof van 't Bier / als wy gheseydt hebben / is Water / Gerste-Mout / somtijdts oock Terwe oft Spelte / ende de bellen oft brocken van de Hoppe. Dese verscheyden deelen hebben elck haere eyghen ende bijsondere krachten. Want het Water daer het Bier van ghebrouwen wordt / te weten slecht / klaer ende onghemenght zijnde / is koudt ende vocht: het Mout is drooghende ende of vaegende / met eenige niet seer groote warmte: de Terwe ende de Spelte zijn middelmatighlijcken warm ende droogh: de bloemen oft bellen van de Hoppe verwarmen ende verdrooghen in den tweeden graed / sy beroeren het hooft / ende vullen dat met haere waesdommen / verwerken het pissen / ende hebben oock een af vaegende ende openende kracht. Dan dese Hoppe wordt daer by gedaen om het Bier smaeckerlijcker ende langhdurender te maecken oft van bederffenis te bewaeren: maer het korenwerck dat daer by is / sterckt voor stoffe om den selven dranck eenighe voedende eyghentheydt te doen krijghen.
    Nae de verscheyden / oft onghelijcke mengelingen van de voorseyde stoffe / wordender oock verschillende gheslachten van Bier ghevonden / allegader onghelijcke ende met den anderen niet seer wel over een komende krachten hebbende / ende in het drincken vertoondende. Want sommige Bieren zijn dun ende slap, sommighe sterck; sommighe ros oft bruyn / sommighe wit: veele sijnder bitter / ende veele soet van smaeck. De ghene die veel korenwerck in hebben / zijn stercker ende krachtigher: daer min koren in is / zijn slapper ende lichter: de ghene die heel luttel Korens hebben / zijn daerom oock de alderslapste ende dunste. Van Gerste-Mout / dat langher gheroost is gheweest / wordt het Bier rosachtigh / in sonderheydt als het wat langher ghesoden heeft: dan ghemeynlijck zijn de Bieren / die van Spelte ende Terwe ghemaeckt worden / wit van verwer; ende oudt gheworden zijnde ghelijcken sy den dunnen oft lichten waterachtighen Wijn niet qualijck / aengaende de dunnigheydt van haer stoffe. De Hoppe-bellen / te langh oft te veel met het Bier ghesoden zijnde / maecken dat de Bieren bitterer van smaeck zijn / ende het hooft eer vervanghen ende lastigh vallen: alsser niet veel Hoppe by en is / dan zijn de Bieren veel soeter. Want het Korenwerck pleegh het Bier van sijn selven de soetigheydt te gheven.
    Onder alle dese Bieren is het dunste ende lichtste Bier wel koudt ende vocht van aerdt / door dien dat de waterighe eyghenheuydt ende stoffe in't selve wel de meeste is: het is nochtans niet gantsch sonder eenighe warmte.
    De Bieren / die wat stercker oft dicker zijn / hebben oock meer warmte: selfs door de kracht ende moghentheydt van de voorseyde hitte plegen sy in de vaten oft tonnen ghegoten zijnde te sieden / te rijsen oft op te gaen / ghelijck den Most oft nieuwen Wijn: nochtans en zijn sy soo warm van aerd niet als de middelmatighe oft ghemeyne Wijnen; iae worden van de selve niet alleen aengaende de hitte van haer ghestaltenisse / maer oock aengaende de dunnigheydt oft fijnigheydt van stoffe verwonnen ende te boven ghegaen. Want de verwarminghe van Bier komende is heel matigh / sacht / ende niet al te gheweldigh.
    Voorts soo zijnder sommighe Bieren die den lijfve niet seer veel / iae bijnae gheen voedtsel met allen en geven: ende sommighe voeden wat meer: dan de sterckste gheven het meeste voedtsel. Maer 'tzy dat de Bieren veel / 'tzy datse luttel voeden / het sap / voedtsel oft gijl / dat daer van goed Korenwerck ghemaeckt / ende wel ghesoden ende gebrouwen zijn. Dan de dichtachtiger Bieren blijven omtrent het herte ende de maghe eenen tijdt langh marrende oft hanghende / ende gaen traeghelijck oft langhsaem nae beneden: de Witte zijn dunner / ende worden eer verteert oft verdouwd: de Bittere Bieren maecken den buyck weeck door haer afvaeghende kracht: de middelbaere / te weten niet te soete noch niet te bittere bieren / zijn oock van krachten tusschen 'tmidden van de andere ghestelt.
    De ghemengelde Bieren / die beneffens het Coren ende de
Hoppe / noch eenighe andere Cruyden / Bloemen / Saden / Vruchten / Specerijen ende dierghelijcke dinghen in haer habben / betoonen oock verscheyden ende gemenghde / iae somtijdts oock quade ende schadelijcke krachten ende werckingen / nae de verscheydentheydt der krachten van die dinghen die daer by ghemenght zijn.
    Jongh oft versch Bier / dat noch niet wel ghegaen oft geresen ende gesoncken is / doet den lichaeme veel quaedts ende hindernisses; gelijcker wijs den Most pleegh te doen: het veroorsaeckt opblasinghen ende winden in het inghewant en' darmen / het beroert den buyck / doet het graveel ende den steen in de blase ende nieren groeyen / ende is dickwijls oorsacke van ongemackelijck pissen / oft droppelpisse: dan nochtans alsmen 't van buyten opleyt / ende de zenuwachtighe deelen des lichaems daer mede bestrijct / oft nat maeckt / dan versoet het de pijne van de selve / te weten als dat selve Bier noch heel warm ende soet it. Ende tot dien eynde sal het beste ende krachtighste Bier wesen 'tghene dat heel versch is / ende daer de Hoppe noch niet mede ghesoden oft langh by gheweest en is.
    Suer Bier is de zenuwen ende de nieren hinderlijck / beroert de maghe / ende doet in 't lichaem quade vochtighheden groeyen.
    Edick van Bier ghemaeckt is onstercker dan den Wijn Edick / ende oock so scherp niet / noch oock niet soo dun van deelen als den selven Wijn-Azijn.


In de boecken van de Landtwinninge zijn veele ende goede aenmerckingen aengaende het Bier beschreven: dan wy sulien den Leser daer toe seynden / ende alleen een weynighsken van 't selve uyt Lobel ende anders vermaenen.
    De maniere om Bier te brouwen uyt Lobel. Neemt acht Enghelsche meu?kens grof ghemaelen Mout: daer op giet schoon rivier water / dat siedende is (in 'twelcke ettelijcke handevollen Terwe Semelen ghesoden hebben) soo veel als in een carteel van Orleans soude gaen. Dit samen wel gheroert ende gemenghe zijnde / salmen wel warm laeten staen den tijdt van dry uren / ende dan van onder af trecken door een kleyn gat / ende door stroo laten loopen / oft met eenen dobbelen bodem dar toe dienende. 'Tghene dat alsoo afghetrocken is (dat in 't Nederlantsch ende Enghelsch Woorte ghenoemt is) wort wederin een half ure oft wat langer / iae oock wel sommige uren tijdens gesoden / om dat het te beter soude mogen goedt ghehouden worden; daer by doende vier ponden Hoppe: daer nae wordt het ghedaen in een groote ende breede kuype / die naeuwelijck in acht oft tien ponden van dit soo verkoelt Bier ghedaen een pondt oft anderhalf Gist van het beste Bier: al dit wel onder een gheroert zijnde / doetmen in een warme plaetse; ende men deckt het met kleederen / allenghskens de reste van 't Bier daer by gietende / om dat het te beter gaen soude. 'Twelck volbroght zijnde / soo wordt het voorghegoten / de tonnen ghevult: ende ten laetsten als't al ghegaen heeft / wordt het seer wel ghestopt. Op dat selfde Mout gietmen dan versch heet water: men doet dat door / ende men maeckter Dun oft lileyn Bier af.
    Enghelschen Ael wordt aldus ghemaeckt: Neemt twee hondert pondt ghesoden Mout / dat is Worte / twee handtvollen Hoppe: als dat same wel ghesoden heeft ende doorghegoten is / salmen 't allenghskens t'samen menghen / als boven gheseydt is / te weten Gist van Bier oft Ael dry ponden / ende Engelsch Graut / dat wy Naerbier noemen / ses oft acht ponden.
    Bellonius seydt / dat het Zythum gheen ghelijckenis met ons Bier en hadde: maer versekert stoutelijck / dat het Zython van de Griecken de Posca oft Pusca der Latijnen was: maer hy ist: want de Posca en was anders niet dan een menginghe van Water en Edick / die van onse Cervisia, Zythum oft Bier seer veel verschilt / ende met de Reuuragie van sommighe scheepvaerende lieden meer over een komt: al is 't dat elck volck sijn schiplieden eenen bijsnoderen dranck op Zee mede pleegh te gheven / als hier onnoodigh te verhaelen is.
    Kracht van't Bier. Bier heeft veele krachten / niet alleen binnen maer oock buyten den lyfve.
    Want is't datmen Bier warm maeckt / ende de voeten daer mede stooft van de ghene die moede ghegaen zyn / het verdryft de moeheyde.
    'Tschuym van 't Bier maeckt het vel van der vrouwen aensicht schoon ende effen.
    Bier ghemaeckt van Mout / dat in Looghe gheweyckt is / loopt seer haest in't hooft / ende veroorsaeckt bynae eenighe dulligheydt / nae een soete vrolijckheydt.
    Ander doen in plaetse van Hoppe Zoet oft Roet van de schouwe in 't Bier; ende het Mout weycken in Zout water / om batmen van 't Bier hoe datmen daer meer af drinckt meer dorst soude kryghen.
    Plaesters ghemaekt van Worte van't beste Bier gheuesen de pijne van de zenuwen ende leden met haer versoetende versterkende ende verteerende kracjt: ende zyn goedt teghen 't flercyn.
    In't dat ghy groene Hoppe in't Bier laet sieden / ende dat in den mondt houst / 'tsal den tandtsweer verdrijven.
    Een Henne oft Capoen sal haest vet worden / is't datse in stede van water Bier drincken / oft datmen hun eten met Bier beslaet.
    De Hoogh ende Nederduytschen sieden somtijdts met de Hoppe Gentiaene / Bakelaer / Zedoar / Gagel / Alantswortel / Lavendel / Savie / bloemen van Horminum / oft Scharley / Cuculus Indi / oft eenighe soorten van Dulmaeckende Naschaeye / Veldt-Cypres / ende andere dierdhelijcke cruyden: ende daer van worden de Bieren soo verscheyden van krachten / dat het Ghemenghelde drancken / ende gheen Bieren / te heeten zijn / als Dodoneus ghenoegh hermaent heeft. Dan de Hoppe alleen is genoegh om het Bier gijesondt te maecken: want sy suyvert het bloedt / ende matight de hitte des levers / als in de beschryvinghe van de Hoppe in 't langh verklaert is. Daerom en behooren de ghene / die in de Wijnlanden woonen / het Bier niet te verachten / 'twelck ons langher ende ghesonder doet leven / dan den Wijn hun doet. Oudt Bier / dat in den Meert ghebrouwen zijnde niet voor den Somer en pleegh ghedroncken te worden / is soo klaer als Wijn / ende bijnae soo sterck / iae somtydts meer krachts hebbende / so datmen veel meer Wijns drincken soude dan van dat Bier. Het wordt hier te lande voor onghesondt ghehouden / als krimpselen in den buyck maeckende. Nochtans bevindt men dat het matelijck ghedroncken de ghesonde lichaemen niet en schaedt / ende deselve veel moets ende krachts geeft / in sonderheydt die van ghedurigh arbeyden vermoedt zijn.  Dan de ghene die versch Bier ghewent zijn te drincken en konnen die veranderingh niet verdraghen; midts dat de rauwigheidt / die sy van versch Bier vergadert hebben / in hun lichaem beroert wordt / als sy beter oft ouder ende klaerer Bier komen te drincken: ende daer van schiynt het dat dit oudt Bier h?im schade doet. Dan het meeste quaedt van oudt Bier is / dat het de keele ende zenuwen ende borst-aderen wat wringht ende lastigh valt: maer dat ongemack vergaet haest. Ende voorwaer / als de herssenen ende de zenuwen door al te veel Bier drincken gekrenckt zijn / ende 't bloedt verbrandt / dan komen in't aensich ende by? den neuse puystkens oft puckelkens / ghelijck de melaetse hebben: de welcke gheen teeckenen zijn van eenighe quaedtheydt der Bieren / mear van gulsigheydt der gener die daer te veel van drincken.
    Om te beletten dat u Bier niet suer en wordt / worpt daer een sacksken met groene Koren-aren op / ende laet die langhe daer op legghen.
    Is't dat het Bier beghint te verschalen oft sijn kracht te verliesen / hanght in 't vat twee oft dry gheheele Eyers: (andere doen daer een gheheele Ruete oft Wasche keerse in:) ende laet dat Bier daer op teeren.
Van den Edick / ende Ghebranden Wijn / die men van Bier macken kan / is't gheen plaetse veele woorden te maecken; als oock van de Giste: want het en kan in dit Boeck alle niet beschreven worden.
    Draf / oft Mout daer het Bier van ghesoden is gheweest / dient om in den Winter de Koeyen ende de Verckens te mesten / als sy op stal staen. 

Small Barley: Hordeum distichum; cleyne Gerste; Chevaliergerst
Large Barley: Hordeum hexastichum; groote Gerste
Large Barley: Hordeum polystichum; groote Gerste

From Het Cruydt-boeck by Dodonaeus, 1644 (first edition 1554).

Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Women's Set of Viking Winter Clothes based on Haithabu and Birka textile finds.


Haithabu in Denmark, or Hedeby in Schleswig-Holstein Germany in our modern times, was one
of the major ports of trading of this area. The textiles that were found here were from the 10th
century, the golden age of Haithabu. The Haithabu garment finds are especially interesting
because they show evidence of advanced tailoring techniques, where instead of just combining
geometric shapes several of the pieces found have been cut into shapes that closely follow the

What is also interesting is that most of the textile finds at Haithabu come from the harbor
where scrap clothing was cut to pieces, soaked in tar and used as caulking in ships. Several ships
were found submerged in the harbor in modern times, and due to the tar protection and low
oxygen environment (below water) the textile fragment were remarkably well preserved. In
addition to the harbor finds, textile remains from the settlement and graveyard of Haithabu were
also analyzed, which proved additional information on what the Viking inhabitants of the town
were wearing.

The textile remains of the settlement and harbor are very similar, with the same garment
types and the proportion of weaves found roughly the same. The grave finds on the other hand
differ from this by generally having textiles of higher quality. These differences could indicate
that the content of the graves reflects beliefs and social standing, while the textiles from the
settlement and harbor may give a truer picture of what people were wearing every day.

Where the available Haithabu information is weak I supplemented my designs with
garment and textile information from Birka, a Viking trading town from around the same time in
nearby Sweden.
My entry at the 2016 Ice Dragon A&S Pentathlon Competition.

Now available to read and download from at:

The Klappenrock: A Viking Warrior's Coat from 10th century Haithabu.

"Presented before you is a man’s coat based on textile fragments found in Viking age Haithabu. Haithabu, in Schleswig-Holstein Germany in our modern times, was one of the major ports of trading of this area. The textiles that were found here were from the 10th century, the golden age of Haithabu. The Haithabu garment finds are especially interesting because they show evidence of advanced tailoring techniques, where instead of just combining geometric shapes several of the pieces found have been cut into shapes that closely follow the body. The klappenrock does not seem to occur in Viking-time imagery and it is duly lacking on the Bayeux tapestry. The Haithabu fragments are the first identifiable remnants of a garment which in pre-Viking times was frequently illustrated. Because of the gap in pictorial evidence within Viking times, and the difference in styles of the caftan in cultural and geographical context, it is not straightforward to extrapolate what style of klappenrock the Haithabu fragments would have made."

(don't mind the kid...)

Now available to read and download from at:

Thursday, January 18, 2018

The Rise and Fall of Gruit.

Everything you ever wanted to learn about gruit - referenced throughout and with an hyperlinked bibliography, when available.

"Gruit as a product changed throughout its history. From a beer additive revered for its fermenting powers, it morphed into a beer with a reputation for powerful headache causing herbals. The intertwined history of the beer additive and the beer taxation helped muddy the historic waters and before one realized the exact nature of gruit as a product was lost. From piecing together the many different puzzle pieces an interesting picture emerges: one of gruit not as just a handful of brewing herbs, but as a powerful and deemed necessary beer fortifier." more...

Now available to read and download from at:

Friday, January 5, 2018

1501 Keur op de Brouwerij, or, Ordinance of the Brewery of Haarlem.

From the Haarlem city brewery ordinances, transcriptions from "Rechtsbronnen der Stad Haarlem" by Huizinga, 1911.
XLIII. Keur op de Brouwerij. 1501, Augustus 22.

5. Ten vijften soe sal een yegelick brouwer of brouster moeten stoerten in elcke broute koyts thein achtendeele tarwe, twintich achtendeelen gersten ende twee ende dertich achtendeelen haveren, al quatter troy ende geen arger, gemeeten ende it een gebrant strekel gestreken, ende daerof sacken moegen wanderen tot hoeren schoensten, te weten voor een sack tarwe twee sacken gerst of twee sacken spelten of twee sacken haveren.
    Ende hierof sal men brouwen elcke brout, (up die tijt van nu ende tot ander stont bij den voorscreven scout ende scepenen andersins daerof geordonneert wordt), XXXI stuck, de XXX uut te voerten ende een voor drinckebier, ende hearnae corter of langer bij ordonnancie van den voorschreven gerechte, nae dat greyn dyeren of lichten sal, ende nyet anders, ten waere datter onverhoets een half vat langer gebrouwen ware, dat sal staen onbegrepen.
    Ende ist, dattet langer valt dan dat half vat voorscreven, zoe sal de brouwer ofte brouster, die dat bier zijn is, id yemand van zijnre wege gaen ende gevent ten minste twee vinders te kennen, hoe veel dat zijn bier langer gebrouwns is dan XXXI stuck. Ende dan zoe zullen die vinders dat bier om Goedswillen geven den rechten armen, daert hemluyden belieft, dat tot langer gebrouwn sal wesen.
    Ende die dit den vinders aldus te kennen geeft, die en sal daeraen niet meer verbueren, ende waert, dattet de brouwer of brouster nyet an en brochte, of dat zijt min anbrochte dan zijt langer gebrowen hadden, ende daer inne bevonden warden, dat waer up die boete van XII cronen, ende die neringe te laten, tot dat zij XII cronen betaelt zullen hebben.

5. The fifteenth so shall a decent brewer or brewster have to dump in each brew kuit ten eightparts wheat, twenty eightparts barley and two and thirty eightparts oats, all [exact] and without argue, measured and ironed [flattened] with a burnt [marked] level, and of that sacks can be exchanged as you want, to know for one sack wheat two sacks barley or two sacks spelt or two sacks oats.
    And of this one shall brew each brew, (to the time of now and until another is otherwise ordained by the regulated sheriff and city officials), thirty one stuck, the thirty to export and one for drinkebeer [local/personal], and after this shorter or longer by ordinance of the regulated court, if the grain is more expensive or less, and not else, unless unexpectedly a half barrel longer is brewed, which will be unused.
    And when it is, that it is longer [more] than the half a vat as regulated, so shall the brewer or the brewster, of which the beer is, send out someone to give notice to at least two finders, [of] how much his beer is brewed longer than the thirty one stuck. And then so shall the finders give that beer by god's grace to the rightful poor, that [which] they believe, that was [belonged] to the longer brewed.
    And those who thus inform the finders, they shall forfeit of it not more, and would it be, that the brewer or brewster did not bring, or that they brought less than was brewed longer, and were found out, then the fine would be 12 crowns, and to not work [have income], until they shall have paid the 12 crowns.

[30.] Item tis voort gekuert, dat een yegelick brouwer of brouster die hoppenbier brouwen willen, in elcke broute hoppenbiers storten thien achtedeelen tarwemouts ende zessendertich achtendeele haverenmouts, ende des zoe mach elcke brouwer of brouster wandelen, indien zij willen, voor elck sack tarwenmouts twee sacken speltenmouts of sacken gerstenmouts, ende dat tot drie sacken tarwenmouts toe ende nyet meer, ende des zoe sal men elcke broute hoppenbiers brouwen vierthien stucken ende een half lanck ende nyet langer, dats te verstaen XIIII stucxs uut te leveren ende een half stuck voor hoer drinckebier te houden, ende dat sal men wryngen ende nyet stoten noch up genen losen bodem brouwen, ende zoe wye anders dede, dar waer up de boete van XII cronen ende hoer neringe te laten, tot zij die betaelt zullen hebben als boven.
    Die burgemeesters mit die gerechte hebben geconsenteert, dat een yegelick brouwer of brouster hoppen sal moegen brouwen alzoe wel up lose bomen als anders ende dat zonder verbueren.

Also it is thus ordained, that a decent brewer or brewster who wants to brew hop beer, in each brew hop beer dumps ten eightparts wheat malt, and thirtysix eightparts oats malt, and thus so may each brewer or brewster exchange, if they want, for each sack wheat malt two sacks spelt malt or sacks of barley malt, and that until three sacks wheat malt and not more, and thus so shall one brew each hop beer brew fourteen stucken and a half long and not longer, that is to say fourteen stucks to deliver and to keep a half stuck for their drinkebeer, and that one shall not squeeze or push [press] nor brew on a loose bottom, and so who does different, there is the fine of 12 crowns and no work, until one shall have paid as above.
    The burghemasters and the court consented, that a decent brewer or brewster may brew hops as well on a loose bottom as differently, and that without a fine.

Transcriptions from Rechtsbronnen der Stad Haarlem by Johan Huizinga. Martinus Nijhoff, 1911.
Translations by Susan Verberg, 2017.
Images are cropped from scans of the city Archives of Haarlem, the Netherlands.

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

1407 and 1450 Keur op de Brouwerij of Haarlem, the Netherlands, for kuit and hopped beer.

From the Haarlem city brewery ordinances, transcriptions from "Rechtsbronnen der Stad Haarlem" by Huizinga, 1911.
1407: IV Keur op de Brouwerij / Ordinances of the Brewery.

5. Item so wie Haerlems bier vercoopt, die selt vercopen bi vaten of bi brouten, of XIII sticke voor tlast, dat te leveren bi den peil, die daer is, daer ment vercoopt. Ende so wie daer in bruekich te laten; dats te verstaen to elksen broute biers XXXVI achtendel haveren mouts ende X achtendel tarwen mouts ende niet min, ende voor dat tiende achtendel tarwen mouts ende niet min, ende voor dat tiende achtendel tarwes mach men brouwen twie achtendell ghersts, of men wil, ende emmer niet min tarwen mouts int brout dan IX achtendel, ende twi achtendel ghersts meer, of men wil. 

5. Also for those whom sell Haarlems beer, they shall sell by the barrels or by the brews, of 13 sticke for to last, which shall be checked with the level, which is there, where one sells. And thus who shall be in default; that is to say to each brew beer 36 eightparts oats malt [oatmeal] and 10 eightparts wheat malt and not less, and for that tenth eightparts wheat one can also brew two eightparts barley, of one wants, or spelt [Triticum dicoccum] and of spelt not less wheatmeal in the brew than 9 eightparts, and two eightparts barley more, if one wants.

34. Voort dat niement genen rogge te moute en make, noch en brouwe te gheenrande bier, op een boete van dreien ponden, alle dinc sonder argheliste.

34. Ergo nobody make malt with (no) rogge, nor brew any beer, on a fine of 3 pounds, all this without argue.

37. Item so we coyt brouwen wil, die en sel in dat broutou binnen vier dagen daer na gheen hoppen bier in dat broutou mogen brouwen, dats te verstaen, datter drie vrie dagen tusschen wesen sellen, er met hoppen bier in brout. Ende voort sel men tot elken broute coyts brouwen twalef achtendel tarwen mouts, achtien achtendel ghersten mouts ende vier ende twintich achtendel haveren mouts ende van elcs niet min, op die boete van III pont.

37. Also those who want to brew kuit, they shall brew in the brew barrel (keeve) no hopped beer within four days, that is to understand, that three or four days would be in between, having brewed with hopped beer. And as well one shall to each brew kuit brew with 12 eightparts wheat malt, eighteen eightparts barley malt and four and twenty eightparts oats malt and of each not less, on the fine of 3 pounds.

38. Voort wes coyt, diemen over zee voert, die en sel men niet langer brouwen dan XXVI vate, op die boete van III pont, ende so wat coyt men binnen lants slijt, en sel men niet langher brouwen dan XXV vate coyts, ende van elcs niet meer, min, of men wil, ooc op die boete vorscreven.

38. About kuit, which one transport over sea, one shall not brew longer than 26 barrels, on the fine of 3 pounds, and about kuit which is sold domestically, and one shall not brew longer than 25 barrels kuit, and of each not more, or less, of one wants, also fined as regulated.


8. Van dat met ghien bier langher en sal brouwen dan XIIII stucke.
Item soe en sal men ghien bier langher brouwen dan van viertien stucks ende een halff vat drinkkebiers van sinen vollen mout, die brout hoppen biers, dat men buten der stede voerden, op een boeten van drie ponden.
(Vgl. de keur van 1407 §3.)

8. Of that no beer shall be brewed longer than 14 stucks.
Also that one shall not brew beer longer than 14 stucks and a half drinkbeer [personal use] of his full malt, they who brew hopped beer, which is transported outside of the city, on a fine of three pounds. (Also in the ordinance of 1407 §3.)

12. Van dat men ghien koyt langher brouwen sal dan XXIIII sticken.
Item dat men ghien koeyt langher brouwen en sal dan van vier ende twintich sticken, die brout van sinen vollen mout, dat met buten der stede boert, ten waere dat men sie in Vrieslant voeren woude, die soud men brouwen van XXVIII stucken ende niet langher, op dat bier verboert.
(Vgl. de keur van 1407 §21)

12. Of that one would not brew kuit longer than 24 sticken.
Also that one would not brew beer longer than of four and twenty sticken, brewed from his full malt, which is farmed outside of the city, be aware that those farmed in Friesland, those should one brew of 28 stucken and not longer, otherwise the beer is forfeited. (Also in the ordinance of 1407 §21)

20. Van dat niement rog te mout maken en moet.
Item datter niement rog te mout maken en moet noch brouwen tot gheenrehande bier, op een boete van drie ponden.
(Vgl. de keur van 1407 §34)

20. Of that nobody can make rye into malt.
Also that nobody can make rye into malt and can not brew into [?] beer, on a fine of three pounds. (Also in the ordinance of 1407 §34)

Transcriptions from Rechtsbronnen der Stad Haarlem by Johan Huizinga. Martinus Nijhoff, 1911.
Translations by Susan Verberg, 2017.
Images are cropped from scans of the city Archives of Haarlem, the Netherlands.